Prepare Bay Area
Here you can learn how to act in an emergency, how to make a first aid kit, how to take care for pets, what to put in an escape bag, and more!
In the event of an emergency, a number of establishments such as shops, pharmacies, banks may be closed. Make sure that there is a supply of food, water, medicines, cash and things you need at home. Look for tips on this page.
How to prepare your own home
Check if you have:
- stock of long-term storage products;
- drinking and technical water;
- first aid kit;
- flashlights, spare batteries for them, candles;
- gas burner with spare cylinders for cooking;
- fire extinguisher;
- warm blankets, sleeping bags, thermal underwear (in case of cold season);
- escape bag (“emergency suitcase”) in case of evacuation or going to shelter;
If you live in a private home, equip the simplest shelter in your own basement.
Offer older neighbors or people who are unable to move independently to help prepare the house, emergency suitcase, escort to shelter if necessary.
Please note that animals are not allowed to be taken into the shelter. If possible, arrange in advance with friends or family members who live in a safe place to transfer pets to them. If that’s not possible, try to arrange to take them into hiding with you. At the same time, make sure that the stay in the shelter is comfortable both for those around you and for the animals themselves, by preparing a carrier, food, water, hygiene products, a muzzle, etc. for them.
How to prepare a supply of water
Calculate the supply for home use according to the number of members in your family. One adult needs per day:
- 3 liters of drinking water (including liquid consumed with food);
- 10-12 liters for hygiene and food preparation.
Make sure you have a supply of water for yourself and your family for at least 72 hours.
If you are not sure about the quality of drinking water, we advise you to have additional cleaning products at home – a filter jug for mechanical water purification or tablets for quick water disinfection.
How to prepare a vehicle
If you have a car, check in advance:
- its technical serviceability;
- presence of fuel in the tank;
- expiration date of the insurance policy;
- presence of additional fuel in canisters.
Emergency supplies: what food to stock up on
Take care of long-term foods. If necessary, they can be taken with you to the shelter. It is desirable that these products do not need a lot of water for cooking.
Also think about the foods you and your family eat. Make a three-day supply of food for the house.
Even if electricity goes out, keep food in the refrigerator: it will remain cold for several hours after turning off. Try to open the door as little as possible. Eat perishable foods first.
If the temperature is low outside, food can be kept outside.
Escape bag foods:
- freeze-dried products (cereals, soups, noodles);
- canned meat, fish, vegetables;
- bread and cookies;
- dried fruits.
What kind of candles to buy in case of power outage
Due to power outages, we recommend that you purchase candles in advance. What types of candles do exist and how do they differ? We will explain.
A beeswax candle is the most environmentally friendly, safe and without a strong odor. Such wax practically does not burn but only melts. It leaves no smoke when burning. Sometimes a share of paraffin is added to the composition of the mass in a strict percentage, so as not to violate the natural properties of the wax. However, if there are horizontal cracks on the wax candle and it crumbles easily, it means that it contains more than 30% paraffin.
Such candles are more expensive than others due to the high cost of raw materials.
The burning time depends on the size, however the smallest ones from the store burn up to an hour.
Vegetable wax candles (stearin)
Stearin is made from various oils, such as palm oil. Stearin candles are easy to recognize: they are opaque, and after burning, a transparent layer is formed with a pattern similar to snowflakes.
- Palm wax candles. Solid and non-greasy material. Burns almost odorless. However fragile, it is easy to break.
- Candles made from soy candle wax. Matte white in color; when heated, the material becomes liquid and transparent with a “milky” smell.
- Candles made of coconut wax. More expensive than palm and soy. Burn longer than others (up to 5 hours). However, they are rarely found in stores.
Such candles exude a concentrated aroma, so they are recommended for use in large rooms.
The burning time depends on the size, but the smallest burn up to 45 minutes.
Paraffin is a product of petroleum distillation. It contains no impurities and no additional purification, it has an unpleasant odor. There are candles made from highly refined paraffin, those that are scented.
It is not worth abusing paraffin candles. It is better to take small breaks and ventilate the room.
Their only advantage is that they are cheap.
The burning time depends on the size, but the smallest ones burn out in half an hour.
Gel candles are made from gel-like mineral oils or gel-like synthetic hydrocarbons. These candles are safer than those made from technical paraffin. But there is a nuance in gel candles – a decorative filler. When burned, fabrics and plastics can give off an unpleasant odor, and they can ignite easily and fires can become uncontrollable. Therefore, it is better to buy gel candles with pebbles that will not ignite.
Burning time – an average of 4 hours (but depends on the size).
How to make your own candles
Candle of long burning
You can make 6 long-burning candles from one wax candle 30 centimeters long. Each of them will burn for 10-12 hours.
What do you need:
- small jar, glass or shot glass with thick glass;
- paraffin candle;
- wax candle;
- a pinch of salt;
- oil (refined, odorless);
- matches or lighter.
How to do:
- Divide the wax candle into several pieces, approximately 5 centimeters each.
- Drop a little melted paraffin on the bottom of the container and fix a piece of candle on it until it has hardened.
- Pour oil into a container, add a pinch of salt, which will remove moisture from the oil.
- The long-burning candle is ready!
What you need:
- small plate (made of glass or clay);
- improvised wick – a rope made of natural fabric, gauze, bandage or cord;
- oil (refined, odorless).
How to do:
- Pour about 100 ml of oil into a bowl.
- Cut a circle of potatoes 1 centimeter thick and make a hole in the middle for the wick.
- Grease both the potato circle and the wick with vegetable oil.
- Pass the wick through the potatoes so that about half a centimeter protrudes from the top.
- Put the potatoes in a bowl of oil and light the wick.
Approximately 100 ml of oil and 3-5 cm of wick will burn up to 6 hours.
How to prepare a first aid kit
Prepare two first aid kits – one for emergencies (for example, in case of injury), the second for your household needs (pain relief, elimination of symptoms of poisoning, elimination of allergic reactions).
First aid kit for emergencies:
- valve with a film for artificial respiration;
- funds to stop bleeding (tourniquet or hemostatic bandage with a hemostatic agent);
- chlorhexidine or alcohol to disinfect wounds;
- hand sanitizer, alcohol wipes;
- gauze pads of various sizes, non-sterile gauze bandages;
- elastic bandages with the possibility of fixation;
- 2 pairs of rubber gloves;
- special atraumatic scissors for quick cutting of clothes on the victim;
- a large piece of tissue that can be used to fix the limb of the victim;
- thermal blanket.
Do not put in the first aid kit those tools and medicines that you do not know how to use. If you want to take them, find out in advance how to use them correctly.
Keep prescriptions for your medication (watch the expiration date) and the names and phone numbers of your doctors.
First aid kit for household needs:
- patches of different sizes;
- activated carbon from intoxication;
- drug to reduce fever;
- drug for pain relief;
- antiallergic drug;
- medicine for diarrhea;
- medicine for a stomach infection;
- drops in case of infectious and inflammatory eye diseases;
- the medicine you are taking (for at least a week) with a description of how it is used and how much;
- supply of masks.
We strongly recommend that you receive training in primary care. In case of bleeding, injury, burns, etc. use the instructions and advice from trusted Telegram channels and bots. Check out their content beforehand.
What to put in an escape bag
An escape bag is a bag that contains all of your essential items. Make the necessary minimum of clothing, hygiene items, medicines, tools and foods. An emergency suitcase is needed for a quick evacuation in case of a natural disaster so that you do not waste time collecting things.
Put in your suitcase:
- passport and copies of all necessary documents in plastic packaging;
- money (bank cards and cash; distribute banknotes in different places);
- keys to the apartment and car;
- a map of the area, as well as information about the method of communication and the agreed meeting place for your family;
- chargers for mobile phones and power banks (portable chargers);
- small radio;
- flashlight, matches, lighter, candles;
- spare push-button telephone; radio set;
- compass, electronic clock (preferably waterproof);
- spare batteries;
- a multifunctional tool (multitool) with a knife blade, an awl, a screwdriver, scissors, etc.;
- sharp knife, ax;
- signal means: whistle, fire;
- garbage bags;
- a roll of wide adhesive tape;
- notepad, pen, pencil or marker;
- tablets for water purification;
- threads, needles;
- synthetic cord 4-5 mm thick, about 20 m long;
- first aid kit;
- warm clothes;
- underwear and socks;
- reliable comfortable shoes, preferably waterproof;
- tent, mat, sleeping bag (if space permits);
- hygiene products;
- dishes (pot, flask, spoon, mug);
- two liters of drinking water per person (this amount should cover your minimum requirement for two days, and at the same time will not make your emergency suitcase too heavy);
- food for two days;
- scanned archive of photos and documents.
Keep a note with your name and contacts in the top or side pocket in case you lose your backpack. If possible, take pictures of your loved ones or those who who will constantly be with you – this will help you find them if the group splits up.
After you’ve packed your things, try picking up your backpack and walking around with it. If it’s heavy, be sure to optimize its content: it’s important to carry it to cover without problems.
In your child’s backpack and clothing pocket, place notes with name, year of birth, home address, planned destination, and information about parents – names and contacts. Explain to your child when and how to use this note.
How to negotiate with family and friends about a plan of action
Discuss with family and friends all possible scenarios: in case the whole family is together at home, and in case one of the family members is absent.
An emergency can happen when you are in different places. Therefore, agree in advance on the meeting point, routes and a general plan of action. Agree on how you will contact if the connection is lost (prepare walkie-talkies, agree where to leave a note with information or meet).
Prepare a list of important numbers for each of the family members: write it down or print it out. Let everyone carry this with them.
How to take care of pets
- prepare a supply of dry food and water;
- prepare the carrier, leash, muzzle;
- make sure you have a rabies vaccination;
- put the animal’s passport in an escape bag;
- make a token with the name of the animal and contacts of at least two people;
- take the basic medicine for the animal.
Please note that animals are not allowed to be taken into the shelter. If possible, arrange in advance with friends or family members who live in a safe place to transfer pets to them.